A similarity between the Islamic empires, Ming/ Qing China and Tokugawa Japan is their idea of staying isolated from the rest of the world. None of them wanted any foreign influence or anything that could destabilize them. I think the reasons for this is because before they closed off they all had outside connections, and when they saw what happened with the Caribbean and the pacific islands with the European influence and takeover, they wanted to protect themselves from that. One different thing between the Islamic empires, Ming/ Qing China and Tokugawa Japan is their progression with religion. The Ottomans were intolerant, but became more tolerant, the Safavids were intolerant and increasingly so, the Mughals were tolerant but became intolerant. In Ming/ Qing China Christianity died out and it remained prominently Neo- Confucianism and in Tokugawa Japan there was at first an interesting mix and some syncretism, but then the more traditional religion Shintoism was encouraged. I think the differences are because of survival. By accepting religion the Ottomans were able to survive, the repression of religion allowed for more absolute control in the Safavid empire and the transition to repression was probably a power display for absolute control. China had to rely on itself and that meant sticking to tradition and Tokugawa Japan was reinventing itself and trying to be more Japan like rather than foreign influenced Japan.